is the first article on a series of articles on Amir Nezam Garrousi
a prominent 19th century Persian statesman a distinguished
military leader and an educational scholar, who served in various
important administrative as well as military positions during the
reigns of Mohammad Shah, Naser Eldin Shah and Mozafaredin Shah Qajar.
He also served as tutor and mentor to Crown Princes Mozafaredin
Mirza and Mohammad Ali Mirza during his years of stay in governorship
of Azerbaijan. Hassan Ali Khan Amir Nezam Garrousi
was born in 1236 H. GH.1 (1821 A.D.) in one of the oldest
and most respectful families of Persia.
His ancestors, who were the head of Kaboudvand 2 tribe
in Garrous, had continuously held influential administrative positions
since the beginning of the 16th century during the reigns
of Safavid (1501-1722), Afshar (1729-1747), Zand (1750-1794) and
Qajar (1795-1925) dynasties.
They ruled in the province
of Kurdistan for long
periods of time and were always one of the most influential landowners
in Western Persia. Amir Nezam’s 5th
ancestor Lotf Ali Khan was the governor of Ghom and Kholjestan during
the reign of Shah Solieman Safavi. His 4th ancestor Hossein
Ali Sultan had a high-ranking position during Nader Shah’s era.
His 3rd ancestor Amir Khan was the governor of Kerman
during the reign of Karim Khan Zand. His grand father Najaf Gholi
Khan was the governor of Ardabil and one
of the military commanders in the Perso-Russian war and his father
Mohammed Sadegh Khan was the governor of Garous for 19 years. In
this article a summary of Amir Nezam’s private and public life,
his contributions and achievements are presented
Hassan Ali Khan studied well between
the ages of seven to eighteen under his father’s supervision and
became competent in writing, composition, Persian Literature and
Arabic. During the reign of Mohammed Shah Qajar in 1253 (1838 A.D.)
he entered the military services and advanced to the level of Colonel
in the army and the head of the Garrous regiment and later participated
with his army in a battle for the surrender and capture of the city
of Herat in Afghanistan. 3
After achieving a number of important
military positions including the head of Royal Guards of Tabriz
and governorship of Kermonshah, due to his father’s death in 1260
(1843 A.D.) he resigned from his post and returned to Tehran and
stayed there without any administrative post until the death of
Mohammed Shah in 1264 (1847 A.D.) 4
After Mohammed Shah, during Naser
Eldin Shah’s reign and his grand Vazir Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir,
Hassan Ali Khan once again entered the political scene and was selected
as the head of the Garrous Army.5
In 1265 (1848 A.D.) when Hassan
Ali Khan defeated the Mashhad riot caused by Hassan Khan Salar and
returned to Tehran, king’s brother Hessam Saltaneh, who was in command
of the operation, promoted him to a General in the army.
Few months later, in his next military
mission he succeeded in eliminating the Zanjan riot caused by Molla
Mohammed Ali Zanjani and his Garrous troops reached Ali Morad Khan’s
castle and conquered it. As a result of this achievement he was
promoted to king’s special General.
In 1272 (1855) Amir Nezam traveled
to Mashhad with Sultan Morad Mirza Hessam
Saltaneh in order to preserve the peace in that important eastern
city of Persia.
Later on, in the same year, Hessam Saltaneh was ordered by Nasser
Eldin Shah to attack the city of Herat
(presently in Afghanistan.)
Hassan Ali Khan was in military command of the mission. The conquest
of Herat was completed
in the year 1273 (1856) and Hassan Ali Khan was left there with
his military troops in charge of the city.
Few months later under heavy pressure
from the government of Great Britain
and signing of the infamous agreement, Hassan Ali Khan against his
will left Herat for
Tehran. In the following
years of 1273 to 1275, he was in charge of Royal Treasury.
In 1276 (1859) after
a year of traveling to Royal Courts of Europe including London,
Paris, Berlin and Brussels, Hassan Ali Khan was finally appointed
as Persia’s ambassador to Paris.6 He served in that
post for seven years and was ordered back to Persia (Iran) in
1282 (1865). After a year of stay in Iran,
he was ordered back to Paris
to his old post. He was in Paris
for only one year when he requested to be relieved of his post
in 1283 (1866) due to illness and personal reason and return to
Tehran. In the year
1283 (1866) after returning from Paris,
Shah appointed him to the membership of the High Council of Ministers.
He held that position for five years and participated in reorganizing
the government agencies. In 1288 (1871) he replaced
Haj Mirza Hossein Khan Moshir El Doleh in Istanbul and stayed there as ambassador for fourteen months. In 1289
(1872) when Haj Mirza Hossein Khan became Grand Vazir, he was
ordered back to Tehran
to take the post of Minister of Finance and Public Affairs. During
his ministry, he improved Persia’s
northern roads particularly in the Mazandaran providence and gained
a lot of popularity among the public.
Amir Nezam was among
the few elites of his time who accompanied Nasser Eldin Shah on
his first trip to Europe, which was considered
a very high honor.7Amir Nezam had an important role
in cancellation of Reuter Concession. In a telegram from Manjil,
north of Tehran, he called the concession nullified on the ground
that Reuter Company had not held on to its part of the agreement.8In
1297 (1879) Amir Nezam was assigned to put down an uprising, which
had started, by some of the Kurdish leaders Sheikh Abid Allah
Naghesh Bandi and Hamzeh Agha Mangur who were conspiring against
Persian government. After putting an end to this uprising, Amir
Nezam was appointed to govern the cities of Urumieh and Khoie,
which were added to his governorship of Garrous, Savoj Balagh
and Saein. In 1299 (1881) he was honored with the high military
rank of Salar Asghar9 and was appointed to head the
military of Azerbaijan and in 1300 (1882) he was once again promoted
to Salar Lashgar.10 After the death of Mohammed Rahim
Khan Alao Doleh chief of staff (governor) to Azerbaijan, Hassan
Ali Khan was appointed to this important position of governorship
of Azerbaijan and in 1302 (1884) he was granted the title of Amir
Nezam.11 It was first arranged for Firouz Mirza Farmanfarma
to take over Azerbaijan’s governorship, but Mozafaredin Mirza
Crown Prince did not accept
his appointment. 12Mohammed Hassan Khan Etemad Saltaneh
was Nasser Eldin Shah’s chief Editor. He would inform Shah of
important daily domestic and foreign events. In his daily memoirs
he has written:“ Thursday 17th of Jamady Elaval 1302 (1884): Salar
Lashgar Hassan Ali Khan Garrousi became Crown Prince’s chief of
staff (Pish-Kar). Farmanfarma was not accepted.”
He also wrote on Wednesday
4th Jamady Alsani 1302 (1884), “
Hassan Ali Khan was given the title of Amir Nezam. He is
such a prominent and competent administrator that all people in
Crown Prince’s circle and even Crown Prince himself fear his authority
and respect him immensely.”13 His governorship in Azerbaijan
lasted ten years 1299-1309 (1881-1891). In 1309 he resigned and
after staying in Tehran
for two months, he was appointed to the governorship of Kurdistan
and Garrous. He appointed his son Abdul Hossein Khan Salar Elmolk
to administer Kermonshah. A year later the administration of cities
of Malayer, Toysergan, and Hamedan were added to his governorship.
After the assassination
of Nasser Eldin Shah and crowning of Mozafaredin Shah many thought
that Amir Nezam would be the next Grand Vazir, or minister of
foreign affairs due to his experiences in politics, administration,
finance and military affairs. However, the influential Mirza Ali
Asghar Khan Amin Elsoltan with his strong domestic and foreign
ties got the Grand Vazir position and not only stopped Amir Nezam
from achieving them, but through out his premiership tried to
keep him out of the capital. In 1896 Mirza Ali Khan Amin Eldoleh
replaced Amin Elsoltan and invited back Amir Nezam to the governorship
and attending to the affairs of Crown Prince Mohammed Ali Mirza.
After two years in 1316 (1898) and return of Amin Elsoltan Atabak
Azam and his sour relationship with Crown prince, he resigned
for the second time from the governorship of Azerbaijan and traveled
to Mashhad on a religious trip. After returning
to Tehran in 1317 (1899)
he was appointed to governorship of Kerman and Baluchestan,
where he stayed until his death at the age of eighty and is buried
in Mohan Kerman.
Lord Curzon who was
the British governor to India 1899-1905 and foreign minister between
1919 to 1923, in his book by its title “ Persia
and the Problem of Persia,” 1 states that “Hassan Ali
Khan Amir Nezam Garrousi, who was the Persian ambassador to France
for few years and resided in London for a period of time, spoke
French quite fluently, had progressive thought and favored Western
way of thinking. He was a man with strong character and determination.
During his governorship of Azerbaijan,
he put down a number of uprisings. He is the best Persian administrator
present. Between Eastern statesmen one can rarely find a person
with modern administrative qualities. In all Persia,
if one searches for a man with deep understanding of European
culture, it could be found In Amir Nezam Garrousi. Although he
is seventy-six years old, he is a strong healthy man. There is
a good possibility that he would fill in the position of foreign
minister and during the reign of the new king he would be the
Grand Vazir. Whenever, this happens, it would be a good fortune
for Persian people.”14
Dr. Feuvrier Shah’s
special doctor and the author of the book “Three Years in Persia,”
describes Amir Nezam during his trip back from Europe and arrival
in Tabriz on 1307 (1889) as an intelligent, wise and experienced
old man, who has his special place with the Crown Prince. Doust
Ali Moayer El Mamalek in his book “Statesmen During Naseri Era” describes Amir Nezam as “a respectful and
charismatic person. He attracted everyone around him. Everyone
feared him even the Grand Viziers. Atabak
Amin Elsoltan respected him greatly and would rise up on his feet,
go toward him and greet him whenever Amir Nezam was present and
walked with him shoulder to shoulder. Other ministers and statesmen
were not allowed to sit in his presence without his permission.
Whenever, he entered the Palace the members of the Royal
Court gave him the same respect that
they gave the Grand Vazirs. Amir Nezam was not an ambitious man
and at times that opportunity presented itself, he did not take
advantage to become Grand Vazir. He always remarked that one could
serve his country and government in any position.”15
Note: In Qajar era
the governorship positions of major cities were reserved for the
members of the Royal family and the governorship of Azerbaijan
was reserved for the Crown Prince, but experienced statesmen who
had experience in running the affairs of the government would
accompany them. In the case of Crown Prince tutoring him was an
“Hassan Ali Khan Garrousi
was a well-educated statesman that not only possessed exceptional
administrative and military skills and experience; he highly valued
education and learning. He had an exceptional handwriting, which
is named after him under the title “Monshaat Amir Nezam.”
In 1858, Prince Ali
Gholi Mirza Etezad Saltaneh the minister of education decided
to send forty Dar Elfonoon16 students to Europe
for university studies. During the same time Amir Nezam was appointed
as ambassador to France
Minister decided to send the students, who were under the supervision
of Abdul Rasoul Khan, with Amir Nezam to Europe.”17
During his stay in
Europe Amir Nezam Continuously followed up with students’ progress
and prepared and sent reports to Shah. On Friday
May 18th 1859 he wrote; “
Mr. Alexander serves students with utmost sincerity and
receives salary from the government. However, if HIM18
would order a letter of recognition on his behalf for his services,
it would be very encouraging and would make him very proud of
his efforts. Mirza Reza and Mirza Hossein who have just completed
their studies presented their thesis, which was based on discovery
of a new treatment for a disease. There were two gathering sessions
for their presentations. Number of distinctive University professors
and doctors along with Embassy personnel and myself were present at the gatherings. This was not only a
great honor for students but also a memorable time for all HIM’s
subjects, who thanks God witnessed glory for Persia
and Persian people under the wise guidance and directives of HIM.”
“In his letters to
Shah, he continuously requested extra pay for personnel who were
putting extra efforts in helping students in their daily chores.
He would also request financial aids for graduating student’s
return expenses to Persia.”
20 His attention to education was not limited to students
abroad. Through out his life he continuously gave guidance, counseling,
advice and educational lessons to his children and those who were
under his supervision. One could easily observe these in his writings,
private letters and Pandnameh Yahyavieh. One of the individuals
with a very distinct career who was under his supervision was
the famous poet Iraj Mirza. “ A person
whose impact on Iraj Mirza’s mental growth and development of
thought was as important as Iraj’s father was Hassan Ali Khan
Amir Nezam Garrousi.”21 Under
his father’s supervision and private tutoring, Iraj Mirza mastered
the Persian language. He further continued his education at Dar
Elfonoon of Tabriz,
which was the French branch of Tehran’s
Dar Elfonoon. He also studied logic, comprehension and speech
at Hozeh Ashtiany. Amir Nezam, who at the time was the governor
realized the exceptional talent of Iraj Mirza who had just turned
fourteen years of age and decided to send him to the same school
that his son attended and study literature with Mirza Aref and
French and sciences with Mr. Lamper. “At age fourteen Iraj Mirza
wrote poetry and Amir Nezam encouraged him and gave him prizes.
When Amir Nezam founded the Mozafari
School in Tabriz
under the supervision of Mr. Lamper, he appointed Iraj Mirza to
be the school assistant super intendant.”22 Iraj Mirza
Lost his father in early age and being the eldest son he had to
shoulder his family’s responsibilities. He relied heavily on Amir
Nezam’s assistance and being exceptionally intelligent, Amir Nezam
helped him through out his education and growth. “While very kind-hearted
and helpful to individuals, he was very restrict and disciplinary.
He would severely punish servants for wrong doings”23
He was an experienced man who had traveled extensively and was
acquainted with European cultures and languages. He admired European
life style, which he considered as democratic and progressive.
He was a master of Arabic and Persian literature with an outstanding
handwriting, which is known as Monshaat Amir Nezam and is still
considered as one of the most beautiful styles of writing in Persian.
“His style of writing is in every way, beauty, clarity, grammar
and order comparable to those of Ghaem Magham and Haj Farhad Mirza.
His expressions, slang and interpretation of folk’s language combined
with his writing could even put him ahead of Ghaem Magham and
Motamed Doleh and in this respect he could be considered precedent
to Deh Khoda. If one would go as far as to claim Amir Nezam as
Deh Khoda’s teacher might very well be correct; since Deh Khoda’s
famous book ‘Charand Va Parand’ was written under the influence
of Amir Nezam’s style of writing”24 In his writings
Amir Nezam has combined Poetic expressions, verses from Koran,
Prophet’s Hadith and Arabic expressions and turned them beautifully
into easy, smooth and elegant readings. It would not make a reader
tired from reading such a mixture of opposing concepts. He was
very fond of poetry and his eloquent handwriting known as “The
Style of Amir Nezam,” as an expression, was compared in beauty
to the feather of a peacock. During his lifetime he found a number
of followers who took after his style in writing. Iraj Mirza who
had a very beautiful handwriting copied Amir Nezam’s style of
writing. His good fortune in his youth was to come in contact
with Amir Nezam, who discovered his exceptional intellect and
learning ability and gave him all the learning opportunities.
In Iraj Mirza’s Collection of Poetry (Divan Sha’er) a large number
of poems are about Amir Nezam. In one occasion Iraj Mirza sent
a few verses of poems to Amir complaining about his lack of attention.
Amir Nezam immediately replied with a very kind letter and gave
Iraj Mirza assurances and encouragements. Through his recommendation
Shah gave Iraj the title of Fakhr El Shoa’ra. The kind words combined
with prizes and continuous support encouraged Iraj Mirza to complete
his work and achieve great stature in Poetry. He learned Arabic
and French and mastered Persian literature, poetry and writing
under Amir Nezam’s direct supervision. While Amir Nezam was living,
Iraj Mirza relied continuously on his approval in all aspects
of life and is reflected in his poetry. If he would feel a bit
of doubt in Amir Nezam’s approval toward his ideas, it would be
clearly reflected in his poems. In the following a translation
of some of Iraj’s poems and his appreciation is presented:
“A true man is
one whose origin and roots are proud of him,
and not one who constantly
boasts about his origin and roots.
A true man is one,
whose social position gains credibility by him,
And not one who
tries to gain credibility through his position.
Amir Nezam full
of knowledge, art and ethics,
Desires no power
or grandiose, rather power and grace follow him.
On the first day
of New Year, I send the generous Amir a selection of poems,
to be pleasant and be rewarded with gold and silver.
But not appealing
to your taste and not believing the poetry was mine.”25
In another part
of his poetry Iraj Mirza refers to Amir Nezam’s follow up and
examining him in writing and speech.
me on writing and speech on the first day after the month of fasting,
I passed my exam and was elevated with his praising.”
After Amir Nezam’s
departure from governorship of Azerbaijan,
Iraj Mirza got very depressed and wrote these poems:
“Amir went and
with him the mines of gold and silver, the bread and water,
Amir went and with
him the science and insight, giving and kindness.
He left tears in
the eyes of all people in town,
He went and left
depressed the entire town.”26
Nezam’s attention to education was not limited to government
students abroad or to his followers such as Iraj Mirza. He spent
a great deal of time preparing and sending letters of advice and
educational guidance to his children, when they were not accompanying
him on his trips or he was traveling alone or on special missions.
Among the extensive amount of work the most important ones are
his condensed letters of Advice and Guidance to one of his sons
under the published title “Yahyavieh.” His private letters of
advise and guidance to his only daughter
Salma “Mofarah EL Doleh,” and to his both sons Yahya Khan and
Abdul Hossein Khan “Salar El Molk,” are mostly preserved among
family members and his descendents.
Through a closer look
at the contents of Yahyavieh and his private letters one can find
a better understanding of his thoughts and philosophy that guided
him through out his life and helped him develop into an outstanding
military and administrative leader and at the same time a literary
scholar and a unique educator. If one were to apply the Plato’s
four pillars of leadership, “Wisdom, Courage, Justice and Moderation,”
it would not only fit Amir Nezam’s character well but one could
add kindness and Humility to it as well.
In Yahyavieh, he
advises his son,
stay away from people who stay away from God and not get close
to those who associate with scum and wretched.
from jealousy and stinginess.
not spoil your giving and kindness by bringing to their attention.
more time with the learned individuals, aim at important works
and always have a purpose in life.
Avoid wrong phrases and unfamiliar sentences and be a pleasant
and competent speaker.
- Study literature
effectively and make a great effort in improving your handwriting.
- With regard to your professional work, after finding out -about
its vice and virtues, do not hesitate to pursue it and do not
leave today’s work till tomorrow.
- Be generous and
- When your enemy
is pursuing peace accept it and do not insist on war and animosity
- In all circumstances
acting without use of brain is wrong. However, during battle one
should not always follow his mind, since it would direct an individual
to choose safety. Once mind overcomes spirit weak heartedness
and fear would prevail and one looses advantage against the enemy.
Eventually, he will abandon the battlefield and escape.
- Among men dying
with honor is better than living with shame.
- An enemy that
doesn’t bow to peace offering and friendship must be defeated
- To delay conquering
an enemy’s base would create difficulties at a later time. The
army would get frustrated and the enemy’s fear would disappear.
- Do not waste
any time in leisure and accustom yourself to delicious food at
- Leave your body’s
health to power of nature and do not take any drugs or medicine
-Try to associate
with elites and leaders of society.
- Try to choose
a spouse who is beautiful, well-mannered, soft spoken and virtuous.
- Keep in mind that appearing beauty is acceptable when it is
matched with a fine personality. And god forbid chose separation,
if you ever were stuck with a wrong one.
- Avoid multiple
wives as much as possible.
- In any social
position and status, avoid praising yourself. Never speak about
your ancestors out of praise and boast.
- Always try to
do your work with such a competence that everyone praises you
for your excellence.
- Do not put your
finger on others weaknesses and handicaps.
- Do not insist
on discovering the mysteries of life.
- Do not use a
fowl language and always keep side with your family and friends.
- Always be loyal
and associate more with your family and friends of the family.
- Respect the learned
- Do not speak
to anyone sarcastically and humiliating and in ridicule.
- Do not forget
to pay for people’s services.
- Be consistent
in your behavior toward the poor and rich and make a habit of
being graceful and humble in every occasion.
- Always bring
your head down in praising God and remember that it is in Islam
that all your prayers will be answered.”
- Sufi28 like character will keep you
in the heart of everyone and arrogance would not get you anywhere.
- Ask only God
for help at times of financial difficulty and be patient.
- If you want your
loved ones to be safe from others aggressions, avoid being aggressive
Stay away from drugs and alcohol in order to avoid community crimes.”29
His private letters
to his daughter Salma “ Mofarah Eldoleh”
and his son Abdul Hossein Khan “ Salar Elmolk” are spread among his descendants.
Some of his letters of advice that were accessible are copied
and are attached at the end of this article
1- H.GH is an abbreviation
for the Arabic date Hejri-Ghamari that is originated when Prophet
Mohammed emigrated from Mecca
to Medina, 622 A.D.
2- Kaboudvand means
great host. This is a title given to Amir Nezam’s ancestor Amir
Ezedin, who was the governor of Kurdistan,
by Imam Reza the 8th holy Imam of the Shiite Muslims
during his passage through Kurdistan on
his journey from Medina
to Toos. He stayed in Kurdistan and was
hosted by Amir Ezedin.
3- Due to its common
boundaries with Ottoman Empire, present
the region was of logistic importance.
4- This was mainly
due to his cold relationship with grand Vazir (prime minister)
Haj Mirza Aghassi.
5- Qajar Dynasty
6-During his years
of stay in Paris he
became acquainted with the members of the Royal
Court. He was often invited to dine
with Napoleon III and queen Eugenie and
being a master chess player, Napoleon enjoyed playing chess with
him. Among interesting social events of his time in Paris
was the Norouz ceremony. As part of the Iranian tradition during
Norouz, host offers gold coin to guests for good fortune and prosperity
in the coming year. In one of these ceremonies in Persian embassy,
Hassan Ali Khan presented a distinct Persian gold coin to a French
General, who refused to accept it. Hassan Ali Khan, who was known
to hold his honor and integrity dearly, was extremely insulted.
In his next meeting at the Palace, he brought up the matter to
Napoleon’s attention. He explained about the Norouz tradition
and added, since he is the official representative of Persia,
refusing to accept a present would be a direct insult to the king
Napoleon demanded to see the coin and Hassan Ali Khan presented
it. After examining the coin, Napoleon stated, that our General
was quite ignorant not to accept the coin. We shall accept it
on his behalf.
7- Doust Ali Khan
Moayer Saltaneh, “ Political Elites of
8- Ibid. 360-361.
9- Salar Asghar
is equivalent to a two star general.
10- Salar Lashgar
is equivalent to a three star general.
11- Amir Nezam
was the highest military rank equivalent to a four star general.
12- During the
Qajar’s reign Crown Prince was raised, trained and held the ceremonial
title of governorship of Azerbaijan.
At a same time a prominent statesman would be appointed to govern
the region and be responsible for training and mentoring of the
13- His authority
and strict disciplinary actions were out of his respect for law
and order. When one reviews his writings during his stay in Europe,
his admiration for democracy and social order and openness that
existed in Europe is clearly observed.
In one of his daily reports to Nasser Eldin Shah, he describes
how newspapers reflect government’s political views and let the
public be aware of the decisions made by the government.
is translated back from the Persian translation of George Nathaniel
Curzon’s book “Persia
and the Problem of Persia,” Lord Curzon had a special interest
in Asia. He had at least in his early part
of his life a meteoric rise in the British Foreign Service and
in 1899 he was appointed Governor-General, Viceroy of India.
15- Doust Ali Moayer
El Mamalek, “Persia’s
Statesmen,” Pgs 363-367
16- Dar Elfonoon:
The first school of
by Amir Kabir the famous Grand Vazir during Naser Eldin Shah’s
17- Ahmad Ali Khan
Vaziri Kermani, “History of Kerman,”
18- HIM: His Imperial
19- “Amir Nezam
in Embassies of France
Ahmad Sohali Khonsari, Pg 7
20- Ibid Pg 94
21- Mohammed Jafar
Mahjoub, “A Research on Thoughts, Works, and Poems of Iraj Mirza,
His Family and His Ancestors.” Tehran
22- M.J. Mahjoub
“A Research On Thought, Works, and Poems of Iraj Mirza,” Pg 27
23- His strict
punishments were due to his extreme respect for law and civility
and reflective of the 19th century social atmosphere
While reading his writings during his stay in Europe,
one can easily observe his admiration for democracy and social
openness of Europe. In one of his reports
to Shah he explains how newspapers publish political decisions
made by their government and inform their citizens of the details.
In another example of his respect for law and order one could
also observe his strong conviction toward populist and democratic
movements. When Shah ordered him to mobilize the army in Azerbaijan
to put down the riots in Tobacco strike of 1890, he not only refused
to do so but also sent a letter to local newspaper responding
to Shah’s order. He responded that soldiers are common people
and would put down their rifles, if ordered to shoot the rioters.
This incident coupled with his open agreement with Tabriz Ulama
to condemn the Tobacco Concession lead to his resignation from
governorship of Azerbaijan.
24- M.J. Mahjoub,
“A Research On Thoughts, Works and Poems of Iraj Mirza, his Family and
1963, Pg 17-18
25- Ibid, Poems
26- Ibid, Pgs.
9, 41, 59-60
27- Sadats are
the descendents of Prophet Mohammed.
28- A school of
thought originated in Central Asia based
on the teachings of Prophet Mohammed. It later branched out to
other parts of Asia and Middle
East. This movement has always been very strong in
The fundamental principles of Sufism took its roots from teaching
of Prophet and later developed to be the mystical branch of Islam.
Sufism encompasses the realization of truth through divine love,
the selfless remembrance of God ‘Zekr,’ the enraptured dance or
‘Soma,’ and the ultimate perfection in divine unity. Sufis are
happy to choose poverty in accordance with the example of Prophet
Mohammed who taught that true wealth consists in contentment with
what one has and true poverty is in discontent.
29- Amir Nezam
Ahmad Ali Khan Vaziri Kermani, “History of Kerman,”
“Amir Nezam in Embassies of France
Ahmad Sohali Khonsari,
Mohammed Jafar Mahjoub, “A Research on Thoughts, Works,
and Poems of Iraj Mirza, His Family and His Ancestors.” Tehran
Amir Nezam Garrousi, “Yahyavieh”
Religion, Politics, and Society, Collected Essays, Nikki Keddie,
Homa Katousian, “The Political Economy of Modern Iran
1926-1979,” N.Y. University
Press, N.Y. and London,
Doust Ali Khan Moayer Saltaneh, “ Political Elites
George Nathaniel Curzon “Persia
and the Problem of Persia”
Doust Ali Moayer El Mamalek, “Persia’s
Mohammed Hassan Khan Etemad Saltaneh,
“Daily Memoirs of Etemad Saltaneh”
Lord George Nathaniel Curzon, “
and the Problem of Persia”